Rose’s poems have appeared in many online and print journals, including Anon, Anti-, The Dark Horse, and The … Therefore, all other top predators—except hyenas—can be excluded, at least for the round–oval punctures in cave bear longbone shafts. (1–4) Cub humeri from the Weiße Kuhle Cave, Germany. punctured cave bear cub femora), and overlap of Late Palaeolithic Aurignacian camp sites at the cave entrances, or cave bear hunt signs deep in caves. Hyenas and other carnivores are rarely found at the ‘scavenging sites’, including caves and cave bear dens, because they are only found there when they occupied the cave entrances as (a) cub raising, (b) communal or (c) prey depot dens (cf. The dentition is very heterodont in those specialized mammals (cf. ). [32–38]) or were fighting for pro-arguments (e.g. Extinctions of Late Ice Age cave bears as result of climate/habitat change and large carnivore lion/hyena/wolf predation stress in Europe. Puncture marks of premolar teeth are only present in cub femur bones, owing to slight phosphatic calcification of the shaft. From the literature, new interpretations were made of the sites in the archaeological content (Neanderthal versus Aurignacian sites), and overlap in carnivore den use (hyena/wolf den—always at entrance areas) and identification as small to large cave bear dens (figure 1 and table 1). Login with Gmail. At these times, different cave bear subspecies Ursus spelaeus subsp. partly with spiral breakage, and tooth mark impact marks on the surfaces from the Perick Caves, Germany (PCH collection). ). This was already contradictory to the results of the archaeological inventory that is well acceptably declared to be solely of, again, Cro-Magnon human Late Palaeolithic origin, and not of Mousterian (cf. Other cave bear cub femora with holes (‘bone flutes’) were then reported from the Istállóskö Cave, Hungaria (cf. Fink [30,31] declared then to the top of this, without natural scientific studies, that the hole spacing matched a ‘diatonic scale sequence, among the most widespread scales known’—which underlines, also contradictory, that this is not of human origin. A critical re-evaluation on bone surface modification models for inferring fossil hominin and carnivore interactions through a multivariate approach: application to the FLK Zinj archaeofaunal assemblage (Olduvai George, Tanzania). It was discovered by archaeologists in a cave near the Idrijca River in 1995. There are two things we can all agree on, though: we hope someday to uncover the true origin of the Divje Babe bone flute, and musical instruments certainly rank among the greatest inventions of members of the genus Homo. Figure 2. There, damage on cave bear bones is now well known and reported in several publications (e.g. Cave bear at the Divje Babe I site: taphonomic-stratigraphics analysis. subsp.) Small parallel rectangular scratches on the pseudo-bone flute of Divje Babe Cave 1 were misinterpreted as cut marks (cf. The comparison focused on the presence/absence and positions of round–oval puncture marks. ), who misidentified: (a) the site occupation by Neanderthals, as those of Aurignacians , (b) the bone, by rotating it upside down (see ), the 180° rotation of which is corrected herein (figure 5a), (c) the general bone taphonomy of cave bear bones, and (d) carnivore jaw functions, especially hyenas, correctly presented herein (figure 2). At cave bear dens hyenas left, by periodic scavenging, up to 20% of damaged bones, whereas also lions (cave bear killers), leopards and wolves played a larger role in the cave bear hunting/scavenging, even deep in caves. There, the cave bear layers themselves, which generally span from the MIS3–5d=25,000–113,000 BP, overlap/intercalate with the Cro-Magnon times, mainly Aurignacian, partly Gravettian, cultural layers [5,23,57]. Holotype skulls, stratigraphy, bone taphonomy and excavation history in the Zoolithen Cave and new theory about Esper's ‘great deluge’. On average 80% of the cub, and 20% of the adult cave bear bones have large predator damage. These are not instruments, nor human made, but products of the most important cave bear scavengers of Europe, hyenas. (2) Proximally chewed and punctured femur joint of a subadult cave bear (U. s. spelaeus or U. ingressus) from the Weiße Kuhle Cave, Germany. Bone Flutes: (Form and Function:) Bone flutes are one of the oldest known deliberately made musical instruments. Cave bear killers and scavengers from the last ice age of central Europe: feeding specializations in response to the absence of mammoth steppe fauna from mountainous regions. Ice Age spotted hyenas as Neanderthal exhumers and scavengers in Europe. During regular archaeological excavations several flutes, that date to the European Upper Paleolithic have been discovered in caves in the Swabian Alb region of Germany. His scholarship and that of his colleagues resulted in accurate dating and description of the flute and its context (Turk et al, 1997). This main Late Pleistocene bone destructor in Europe is known recently with more than 150 den sites (95% are cave sites) all over Europe. The Late Pleistocene spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) population from the Zoolithen Cave at Gailenreuth (Bavaria, South Germany)—a hyena cub rising den of specialized cave bear scavengers in Boreal Forest environments of Central Europe. figures 2 and 3). [2,3]) and Late Palaeolithic Aurignacian (not Neanderthal) used rock shelter camp site at the entrance (cf. This report of a ‘cave bear femur bone flute’ was not the ‘oldest’, neither historically, nor by stratigraphy. And amidst all the noise, voices get lost and some stories are never heard. You, our viewers, are passionate about these stories we tell. However, the main ‘bone destructor’ is known to be the European Ice Age spotted hyena  (figure 2), with cave bear bone damage first understood at the overlapping hyena den (cave entrance) and cave bear den of the Perick Caves [50–52], with newer proof at Sophie's Cave [21,22], and Hermann's Cave  or Zoolithen Cave  and herein best demonstrated and newly added for the Weiße Kuhle Cave (figures 3, 4, 6 and 7). First ‘bone flute descriptions’ The first ‘Neanderthal cave bear bone flute’ from the Middle Palaeolithic was believed to have been discovered in the 1920s from Potočka Zijalka Jama Cave (i.e. ) and are very different also on the hole margins and forms. One Neanderthal grave also contained a small bone flute. I. Geology and palaeontology. map in ). The Neanderthal Flute, found in the cave of Divje Babe in Slovenia, is thought to date back at least 50,000 years, making it the oldest known musical instrument in the world. © 2015 The Authors. The detail continuous stages of cub femora puncture to breaking stages are demonstrated for the first time herein in the Weiße Kuhle Cave material (figure 6), whereas breakage is much rarer in subadult to adult femora (figures 6, 7 and 8). Nove analize piscali iz Divji bab I (Slovenija). O'odham Style Flutes - This style of flute comes from the People of Southern Arizona. Mokriška jama, nova visokoalpska aurignaška postaja v Jugoslaviji. Indeed, neither hyenas, modern nor extinct, nor any carnivores mentioned use canines for ‘bone crushing’ (e.g. © 2015 The Authors. List of fossil faunal remains from Potočka zijalka (Slovenia). (5–6) Cub radi from the Weiße Kuhle Cave, Germany. The Aurignacian lithic material appears also together with cave bear remains . 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