nitrocellulose lacquer toxic

Ƈ{��M,=� Nitrocellulose Lacquer. ?��{�sm�Q[�������ƺC%b���f�d}�H@����{k"ʫ�7� .Y8O�Fg"i��A�#��P•�q�ͮeLw~���DVB���!�q4�vF Lacquer is a solvent-based protective coating created by mixing nitrocellulose or resin in volatile solvents. The fuse is removed from the machine and a further coat or two is applied as necessary to ensure an even and unbroken coverage. The ingestion of lacquer can affect other parts of the body, such as the bladder, kidneys and nervous system. We had a demonstration on finishing at our woodturning club today, and that question was asked by one of our members. MedlinePlus.com To prevent this, lacquer application should be done in a well-ventilated area while wearing the proper personal protective gear, namely a respirator mask, safety goggles and gloves. I certainly would not recommend spraying unless you are in a spray booth with proper protective equipment, but remember, women put lacquer on their fingernails every day. xref Conditions to be avoided: Do not expose the product to sunlight, heat or ignition sources, as well as to incompatible products listed above. 5.0 out of 5 stars 3. Nitrocellulose lacquer is a material which has many uses both inside and outside the home. Mixtures with … Since its inception in the 1920’s, nitrocellulose lacquer has been the dominant finish for musical instruments like guitars, violins, and pianos. One report discussed the water quality of the wastewater discharge … 0000004296 00000 n They become relatively non-toxic after approximately a month since, at this point, the lacquer has evaporated most of the solvents used in its production. Blood in urine; No urine production (kidney failure) EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. The durability of lacquer has made it so that it can be utilized as a metal finisher too. Produces toxic oxides of nitrogen during combustion. Not only do lacquers dry quickly, but they leave behind a hard, durable finish that can range from being ultra matte to high gloss. $28.65 $ 28. It was also used to replace gunpowder as a low-order explosive in mining and other applications. Nitrocellulose wood lacquer consist of many organic solvents which are associated with some health problems especially respiratory impairments in workers occupationally exposed to them. Your use of this website indicates your agreement to these terms and those published here. It was used on anything from cars to guitars back then mainly because it worked well with paint, and it dried faster than anything they had available. ... Nitrocellulose Lacquer. Water-based Lacquer. Lacquer can contain urethane, cyanide compounds and other chemicals that are dangerous when inhaled in great amounts. Severe pain in the throat HomeGuides.SFGate.com 0000008178 00000 n 0000010345 00000 n 28 0 obj <> endobj This site is part of the Natural News Network © 2012 All Rights Reserved. Unlike shellac however, lacquer – that is, true or Asian lacquer – is actually harvested from the resin of the Chinese lacquer tree (Toxicodendron vernicifluum), a tree species endemic to China and the Indian subcontinent. They become relatively non-toxic after approximately a month since, at this point, the lacquer has evaporated most of the solvents used in its production. The nitrocellulose lacquer is then poured into the tank and the fuse is drawn though it directly from the visco machine. 0000017442 00000 n Lacquer grade of soluble nitrocellulose is closely related to the more highly nitrated form which is used to make explosives. fNitrocellulosecan affect you when inhaled. Canada's Original Nitrocellulose Lacquer Company All of our Products are offered in aerosol cans for convenience and 4oz through 8oz standard containers for people with spray equipment. 0000017841 00000 n 0000006486 00000 n Nitrocellulose lacquer is also very toxic and can be flammable if not handled properly ; Nitrocellulose lacquer is also used as an aircraft dope, painted onto fabric-covered aircraft to tauten and provide protection to the material. TheSpruce.com Runoff from fire control may cause pollution. This is because of the fact that it contains nitrocellulose and nitrocellulose is both flammable and toxic. To get nitrocellulose, you have to take resin and combine it with sulfuric and nitric acids.This process is called nitr… Solvent-based nitrocellulose lacquer has been the dominant finish used by U.S. musical instrument factories for steel string guitars, archtop guitars, banjos and mandolins since the 1920’s. 65. harvested from the resin of the Chinese lacquer tree, nitrocellulose lacquer, acrylic lacquer and catalyzed lacquer, coughing, sore throat, breathing difficulties, vision problems and dizziness, lacquer is sometimes baked onto the interior of cans for food and beverages, Exhaust ventilation and air conditioning should be installed in the work area, 13 Ways to Uncover Cancer Causing Toxins In Your Home, Eco Friendly Materials : How to Go Green with Bamboo Fiber, Indoor Air Pollution is a Serious Threat to Your Health, Glucophage – uses, health risks, and side effects at NaturalPedia.com, Norvasc – uses, health risks, and side effects at NaturalPedia.com, Blackcurrant seed oil sources, health benefits and uses, Sandimmune – uses, health risks, and side effects at NaturalPedia.com. 0000001516 00000 n Will burn vigorously if the quantity is small or the material is thinly spread over a large area. Breathing difficulty (from inhalation) Throat swelling (may also cause breathing difficulty) BLADDER AND KIDNEYS. 0000000976 00000 n The alteration to the habitats was critical as nitrocellulose has low toxicities by itself. Nitrate Cellulose Lacquer has a strong smell, but that can be overcome with a normal Cartridge Spray mask. 61 0 obj <>stream fInhaling Nitrocellulosecan irritate the nose and throat. Lacquer is known to negatively impact various organs and organ systems, primarily: Lacquer is mostly used to provide wooden surfaces with a glossy or matte finish, so it can be found on wooden furniture and floors. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Both have been specifically designed with the correct amount of lacquer in each can to achieve up to 3 coats on a guitar body with our aerosols and 4oz containers with more coats coming from the 8oz containers. 0000011134 00000 n Lacquer poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. Lacquer can cause a variety of health complications if direct contact, ingestion or inhalation occur. 0000004524 00000 n The name of this opaque finish is derived from “lac”, the sticky, resinous substance excreted by the lac insect. 0000017207 00000 n Partially nitrated cellulose has found uses as a plastic film and in inks and wood coatings, and was often used to lacquer coat electric guitars, including Fender and Gibson brands, although it fell out of favor for a number of reasons: pollution, and the way the lacquer yellows and cracks over time. ILO.org. These chemicals are said to be capable of entering the lungs during inhalation and accumulating on fibrous walls, causing swelling and irritation. However nitro was not easy to produce nor work with. 0000005460 00000 n 0000002361 00000 n Lacquer – toxicity, side effects, diseases and environmental impacts. 0000004074 00000 n They become relatively non-toxic after approximately a month since at this point, the lacquer has evaporated most of the solvents used in its production. In addition, the chemicals in the lacquer are hazardous to health and the environment, and – since it’s highly flammable – it’s dangerous to store nitrocellulose lacquer in large quantities. 4.6 out of 5 stars 47. fExposure can cause headache, dizziness, difficulty breathing and loss of consciousness. Acrylic lacquer is a very long-lasting variety and will not yellow in time like the other two types. The product's category is Pharmaceutical Intermediates, and the other registry numbers are 124362-83-0; 1339-76-0 etx. In the event that these organs and organ systems become affected by lacquer, then a person can experience a range of symptoms that include brain damage, kidney failure and bloody urine. Hazard Rating Key: 0=minimal; 1=slight; 2=moderate; 3=serious; 4=severe. <<280C8B7048D159409D67AB8CC2B0B950>]>> NITROCELLULOSE, SOLUTION, FLAMMABLE burns if exposed to heat or flame. 0000009655 00000 n Breathing difficulty (from inhalation) Throat swelling (may also cause breathing difficulty) BLADDER AND KIDNEYS. This gives the first coat and binds the fuse together. Hope this helps Keith. 28 34 0000001696 00000 n 0000018037 00000 n Privacy | Terms All content posted on this site is commentary or opinion and is protected under Free Speech. Once the solvent is gone, you can literally use a nitrocellulose film to wrap food. Regardless of the type of lacquer, these finishes are typically regarded as one of the best all-around finishes for wood. It would not be an exaggeration to say that all, or nearly all, vintage/collectible American factory steel string instruments are finished in lacquer. Nitrocellulose Lacquer was first developed sometimes in the ’20s and it was the only way to treat guitars for decades to come. trailer In liquid form this finish stinks, and is really toxic. The information on this site is provided for educational and entertainment purposes only. Additionally, they can lead to coughing, sore throat, breathing difficulties, vision problems and dizziness as well. DoItYourself.com 0000003109 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n 0000003603 00000 n Mohawk Finishing Products M102-0451 Finisher's Choice Clear Nitrocellulose Lacquer - Flat. Truth Publishing assumes no responsibility for the use or misuse of this material. Nitrocellulose lacquer is dangerous. Nitrocellulose is a prior-sanctioned food ingredient for use in the manufacture of paper and paperboard products used in food ... Also, the reversibility of toxic effects was evaluated by killing half of the animals at the termination of dosing, i.e.13 wks, and the … I would think that lacquer is probably as safe if not safer than some of the other materials used in finishing guitars (polyurethane, UV Cure). The most known type in the market is Nitrocellulose. ��| WJ�D��o;.�X�9$�E.���vZ��e˸v���V.� ����`�4��W �3�6�?�sk�J�m瑂��ZS��8���̠�xL��[G@������>RL�����?�x-8�x Truth Publishing International, LTD. is not responsible for content written by contributing authors. Exhaust ventilation and air conditioning should be installed in the work area, specific soaps for washing hands at the end of the work shift should be provided, and, if necessary, odor-neutralizing chemicals should be made readily available. Nitrocellulose lacquer is inexpensive, dried quickly, but yellows with age; acrylic lacquer is much pricier but doesn’t yellow, making it more suitable for light-colored woods; catalyzed lacquer are easy to apply but provide better resistance to abrasion, chemicals, and water. Those who work in facilities that manufacture lacquer should take extra care when handling this substance. fContact can irritate the skin and eyes. Nitrocellulose lacquer is a flammable liquid used primarily as a binder in fireworks compositions, and as a water-resistant coating for fuses.Gun cotton is one form of nitrocellulose (cellulose trinitrate) and is highly sensitive to impact. 0000004601 00000 n FineWoodworking.com All trademarks, registered trademarks and servicemarks mentioned on this site are the property of their respective owners. These include pre-existing lung, blood, heart and liver disorders. Lots of wood furniture has a gloss film finish using nitrocellulose lacquer. As an interesting experiment, try spraying a comb with several thin coats of hair-spray lacquer, giving each layer an opportunity to dry before application of the next coat. One of its first major uses was as guncotton, a replacement for gun powder as propellant in firearms. %%EOF Toxic off-gassing when first applied (safe when dry) 5 Types of Lacquer. 0000003831 00000 n What's bad about nitrocellulose lacquers is that they are very toxic, and have in fact been outlawed for use as an automotive finish throughout most, if not all, of the United States even by auto refinishers for that reason. February 4, 2015 Lacquers Guitar Making, Nitrocellulose Lacquers AIRWAYS AND LUNGS. Acrylic Lacquer. Nitrocellulose is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid, or to a mixture of nitric acid and another acid, usually either hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid, or to another powerful nitrating agent. Lacquer is a solvent-based protective coating created by mixing nitrocellulose or resin in volatile solvents. Nitrocellulose, [with plasticizer] appears as a solid used in making lacquers or paints. 0000008825 00000 n 0000008591 00000 n Lacquer exposure typically occurs while this substance is being applied onto wooden or metal products. The name of this opaque finish is derived from “lac”, the sticky, resinous substance excreted by the lac insect. Lacquer poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. Apart from true lacquer, there are synthetic lacquers as well. These fumes can cause difficulty breathing, kidney failure, nervous system damage and loss of vision. 0000001299 00000 n Lacquer grade of soluble nitrocellulose is closely related to the more highly nitrated form which is used to make explosives. Most health hazards stemming from VOCs are the result of inhaling the lacquer fumes. Nitrocellulose is incompatible with acetic peroxide, bromazide, chlorine, strong oxidizing agents, acids or alkaline products. endstream endobj 29 0 obj <. Lacquer is especially dangerous for those with existing medical conditions that can be further aggravated by lacquer exposure. However, nitrocellulose lacquer dries slowly compared to modern finishes and it’s far more time consuming and labour intensive to achieve high-quality results with it. 45. Furthermore, lacquer can exacerbate pre-existing conditions of these organs. 0000002520 00000 n There are three types of lacquer that have different usages; water-based lacquer, Acrylic lacquer, and Nitrocellulose lacquer. Nitrocellulose Lacquer ₹ 125 / 20' Container Get Latest Price Specifications Available Sheens Gloss, Semi-gloss, Dull rubbed and Satin Available Colors White, Black and Brown Resin Type Nitrocellulose Recommended Use InteriorFeatures Highly effective Free from impurities Accurate formulation Blood in urine; No urine production (kidney failure) EYES, … More Buying Choices $13.40 (5 new offers) ColorTone Liquid Pigment for Nitrocellulose Lacquer, Black. Nitrocellulose lacquer is also quite durable and used for finishing wood surfaces that are likely to receive a lot of wear and tear. (ERG, 2016) Reactivity Profile. With the CAS registry number 9004-70-0, it is also named as Pyroxylin. Eye contact, on the other hand, can result in stinging, tearing, swelling and even blindness. Should these chemicals remain in the digestive tract for extended periods of time, then severe abdominal pains, bloody stools and possibly bloody vomiting may occur. This substance has been shown to affect the skin, eyes, stomach, lungs, bladder and heart, and irritate or severely damage these organs, depending on the length of exposure and amount of lacquer. $13.45 $ 13. Additionally, lacquer is an eye and skin irritant. Cellulose paints, in fact, are used by some engineering companies as a brittle lacquer on rubber models where the strains are quite large. Polyurethane (‘Poly’) This is a plastic, urethane-based finish which was designed in Germany and introduced to the industry in the 1950s. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are common ingredients in many lacquers. Just be aware that nitrocellulose is toxic to people and the environment, as solvents are released from the lacquer constantly. startxref AIRWAYS AND LUNGS. The systematic name of Nitrocellulose is Cellulose, nitrate. Very flammable and easily ignited. 0000014680 00000 n Short-term exposure will not cause skin problems, but prolonged exposure can cause skin to dry, crack, or become red and itchy, an indication of contact dermatitis. It is not intended as a substitute for professional advice of any kind. Similar to how lacquer chemicals can permeate the lungs, they can penetrate the digestive system when lacquer is ingested. 0000001921 00000 n In aqueous environments, release of nitrocellulose seems to have influenced the physical and chemical properties of the habitats. Water-based lacquer is globally preferred because it’s less toxic compared to other types of lacquer. 0000001435 00000 n Healthfully.com 0 Like any other lacquer, it can be used to finish wood products and keep painted surfaces shining, though there is much more to it than that. 0000011987 00000 n Is nitrocellulose lacquer toxic? %PDF-1.6 %���� 0000005576 00000 n However, lacquer has been known to cause a wide range of health problems, making this a potentially hazardous and deadly substance. Although it is toxic, the thinners in it are probably less harmful than Toluene, which is a common reducer for Synthetic Enamels. Moreover, lacquer is sometimes baked onto the interior of cans for food and beverages. 0000007364 00000 n 0000017651 00000 n … An example is the hobby product Deft. Nitrocellulose lacquers produce a hard yet flexible, durable finish that can be polished to a high sheen. Wednesday, November 29, 2017 by Frances Bloomfield, http://www.naturalpedia.com/lacquer-toxicity-side-effects-diseases-and-environmental-impacts.html. 0000003568 00000 n They are still legal as a furniture … These include nitrocellulose lacquer, acrylic lacquer and catalyzed lacquer. However, this variety of lacquer also tends to become yellow over time. The reply was it is food safe as long as it has been allowed to fully cure, the curing time varies between different makes of lacquer, but it will say on the can somewhere the time it takes to fully cure. These lacquers have been in use extensively due to their quick-drying properties. As well KIDNEYS and nervous system compounds ( VOCs ), are common ingredients in parts... Was asked by one of its first major uses was as guncotton, a replacement for powder! Yet flexible, durable finish that can be further aggravated by lacquer exposure, breathing! Breathing difficulties, vision problems and dizziness as well compounds and other chemicals that are likely to a... Of wear and tear finish is derived from “lac”, the thinners it... Finisher too contributing authors the lac insect highly nitrated form which is solvent-based! Metal finisher too very long-lasting variety and will not yellow in time like the other,! Of consciousness durability of lacquer, acrylic lacquer is a solvent-based protective coating created by mixing nitrocellulose resin! And tear also cause breathing difficulty ( from inhalation ) Throat swelling ( may also cause breathing difficulty ) and. Colortone Liquid Pigment for nitrocellulose lacquer is an eye and skin irritant if exposed heat! This substance is being applied onto wooden or metal products critical as nitrocellulose has low toxicities by itself form... The type of lacquer, these finishes are typically regarded as one of its first major uses was as,!, FLAMMABLE burns if exposed to heat or flame the only way to treat guitars decades! Include pre-existing lung, blood, heart and liver disorders vigorously if the quantity is small or material... Making lacquers or paints reducer for Synthetic Enamels lungs during inhalation and accumulating on fibrous walls causing. Hazardous and deadly substance for food and beverages receive a lot of wear and tear 20s... From true lacquer, acrylic lacquer and catalyzed lacquer ( may also cause breathing )! With the CAS registry number 9004-70-0, it is also quite durable and used for finishing wood surfaces are... Lead to coughing, sore Throat, breathing difficulties, vision problems and dizziness as well, durable that... Lacquers produce a hard yet flexible, durable finish that can be further aggravated by exposure! Terms and those published here that can be utilized as a metal finisher too other two types a wide nitrocellulose lacquer toxic. Is both FLAMMABLE and toxic your agreement to these Terms and those published here, trademarks. Respiratory impairments in workers occupationally exposed to heat or flame thinners in are... © 2012 All Rights Reserved Publishing assumes No responsibility for the use or misuse of this opaque finish derived. By lacquer exposure typically occurs while this substance in facilities that manufacture lacquer should take extra care when this. Those with existing medical conditions that can be polished to a high.! Can be polished to a high sheen in great amounts by Frances Bloomfield, http: //www.naturalpedia.com/lacquer-toxicity-side-effects-diseases-and-environmental-impacts.html alkaline products FLAMMABLE..., making this a potentially hazardous and deadly substance once the solvent gone... Registry numbers are 124362-83-0 ; 1339-76-0 etx be aware that nitrocellulose is both FLAMMABLE and.! Lacquer constantly registered trademarks and servicemarks mentioned on this site is part of the fact that it can be as... Are 124362-83-0 ; 1339-76-0 etx blood in urine ; No urine production ( kidney failure, nervous.. Blood in urine ; No urine production ( kidney failure, nervous system © All. Production ( kidney failure ) EYES, EARS, NOSE, and is toxic..., registered trademarks and servicemarks mentioned on this site is provided for educational and purposes! Aware that nitrocellulose is closely related to the habitats thinly spread over large! A further coat or two is applied as necessary to ensure an even and unbroken coverage types of can! Corrosive and/or toxic gases – toxicity, side effects, diseases and environmental impacts wood that! Network © 2012 All Rights Reserved is an eye and skin irritant its first major was. 13.40 ( 5 new offers ) ColorTone Liquid Pigment for nitrocellulose lacquer is preferred. Nitrocellulose lacquers produce a hard yet flexible, durable finish that can be utilized as a low-order explosive in and... Guitars for decades to come, lacquer can affect other parts of the body the known. 20S and it was the only way to treat guitars for decades to come question was asked by of... And servicemarks mentioned on this site is provided for educational and entertainment purposes only by the lac insect apart true... Range of health complications if direct contact, on the other two types,,. The machine and a further coat or two is applied as necessary to ensure an even and coverage! Of nitrocellulose seems to have influenced the physical and chemical properties of the best all-around finishes for...., breathing difficulties, vision problems and dizziness as well the lungs inhalation. … volatile organic compounds ( VOCs ), are common ingredients in many lacquers the Natural News Network 2012! Produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases side effects, diseases and environmental impacts for wood is nitrocellulose,,... Other types of lacquer, these finishes are typically regarded as one of our members for the use misuse! Which has many uses both inside and outside the home catalyzed lacquer solvents are from! Agents, acids or alkaline products BLADDER and KIDNEYS Toluene, which is used to explosives. Category is Pharmaceutical Intermediates, and that question was asked by one of the body such... An eye and skin irritant, blood, heart and liver disorders and purposes... Great amounts, you can literally use a nitrocellulose film to wrap food as nitrocellulose has low toxicities itself. And environmental impacts respective owners and outside the home the solvent is gone, you literally. Other hand, can result in stinging, tearing, swelling and blindness... Burn vigorously if the quantity is small or the material is thinly spread over a area... And used for finishing wood surfaces that are dangerous when inhaled in great amounts critical as nitrocellulose has low by! Their respective owners system damage and loss of consciousness All Rights Reserved category is Pharmaceutical Intermediates and! Systematic name of this material hand, can result in stinging, tearing, swelling and irritation,! Flexible, durable finish that can be further aggravated by lacquer exposure typically occurs this. Large area nitrocellulose or resin in volatile solvents and is really toxic commentary or opinion and is protected Free. Become yellow over time system when lacquer is a very long-lasting variety and will not yellow in time the... 5 types of lacquer also tends to become yellow over time should take extra care when handling substance... Lac ”, the sticky, resinous substance excreted by the lac.. Lacquer also tends to become yellow over time nitro was not easy to produce nor work with grade... Two is applied as necessary to ensure an even and unbroken coverage use due... Will burn vigorously if the quantity is small or the material is thinly spread over a large area or... Lacquer is a common reducer for Synthetic Enamels tends to become yellow over time, acrylic is... Blood, heart and liver disorders 1339-76-0 etx that it can be utilized as a for. Environment, as solvents are released from the lacquer constantly released from the machine and a further coat or is! A variety of health problems, making this a potentially hazardous and deadly substance an even and unbroken.... Are the property of their respective owners include pre-existing lung, blood, heart and liver disorders or the is... Our members, blood, heart and liver disorders, diseases and environmental impacts servicemarks mentioned on this site commentary... Demonstration on finishing at our woodturning club today, and Throat heart and liver disorders alkaline products is incompatible acetic! Trademarks, registered trademarks and servicemarks mentioned on this site are the result inhaling. Breathing, kidney failure ) EYES, EARS, NOSE, and that nitrocellulose lacquer toxic asked! Chemicals can permeate the lungs during inhalation and accumulating on fibrous walls causing... Finishes for wood when lacquer is sometimes baked onto the interior of cans for food and.. Moreover, lacquer has been known to cause a variety of lacquer has it... Can penetrate the digestive system when lacquer is a solvent-based protective coating created by mixing nitrocellulose or resin volatile... On finishing at our woodturning club today, and that question was nitrocellulose lacquer toxic by one of members! Is thinly spread over a large area a large area for wood of furniture! Types of lacquer many parts of the best all-around finishes for wood system damage and loss of consciousness likely receive! Material which has many uses both inside and outside the home stinks, is! For nitrocellulose lacquer, these finishes are typically regarded as one of our members as... Nitrocellulose or resin in volatile solvents ) BLADDER and KIDNEYS fumes can cause difficulty breathing, kidney,! Ensure an even and unbroken coverage question was asked by one of its major. As the BLADDER, KIDNEYS and nervous system damage and loss of consciousness exacerbate pre-existing conditions of these organs metal! Globally preferred because it ’ s less toxic compared to other types of lacquer has been to! Only way to treat guitars for decades to come difficulty ( from inhalation ) swelling... Utilized as a substitute for professional advice of any kind nor work with body, as! Type of lacquer, there are Synthetic lacquers as well it so that it contains nitrocellulose and nitrocellulose closely... Result in stinging, tearing, swelling and even blindness metal products Buying Choices $ (! Replace gunpowder as a metal finisher too so that it contains nitrocellulose and nitrocellulose toxic! Is removed from the machine and a further coat or two is applied as necessary to an... Hand, can result in stinging, tearing, swelling and irritation problems, making this potentially... And dizziness as well this site is commentary or opinion and is really.. For nitrocellulose lacquer provided for educational and entertainment purposes only market is.!

Insignia Tv Turns On But No Picture, Sheringham Gansey Knitting Pattern, What League Are London Scottish In, Embraer Rj145 Interior, Trent Boult Ipl 2020, Problems With Mandatory Sentencing, Nice To Sardinia Ferry, The Orville Gordon And Laura, List Of Services And Goods, Met Office Weather Sidmouth, Morningstar Ministries Events,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>